Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life.  Human body either does not produce enough of vitamins, or none at all for some of them therefore we have to obtain them from foods.  Currently there are 13 vitamins recognized, fat soluble or water soluble.

Fat soluble vitamins
are found in the fat tissues of human bodies, as well as liver.  Fat soluble vitamins are easier to store than water soluble vitamin and can stay in human body for days, some even for months.  Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats (lipids).

Water-soluble vitamins
are not retained in human body for long time.  They get expelled through urine in short time after absorption.  Water soluble vitamins need to be replaced more often than fat soluble ones.

Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble.
All B vitamins and Vitamins C and are water-soluble



Vitamin A
Vitamin A is an antioxidant.  It plays an important role in human body including;

  •     Vision
  •     Bone growth
  •     Reproduction
  •     Cell functions
  •     Immune system

– Chemical names (vitaminer) – retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids (including beta carotene).
– Fat soluble
– Deficiency may cause night-blindness and keratomalacia (eye disorder that results in a dry cornea)
– Source include: apricot, broccoli, butter, cantaloupe melon 哈密瓜, carrot, cod liver oil, collard greens, egg, kale, liver, milk, pumpkin, some cheeses, spinach, sweet potato,

Vitamin A     clickhere_red25
維生素A     clickhere_orange25


Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 is found in many foods including yeast, cereal grains, beans, nuts, and meat.  It is often used in combination with other B vitamins
– Chemical name (vitaminer) – thiamine
– Water soluble
– Deficiency may cause beriberi 腳氣病, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome 韋尼克 – 科爾薩科夫綜合徵
– Sources include: yeast, pork, cereal grains, sunflower seeds, brown rice, whole grain rye, asparagus, kale, cauliflower, potatoes, oranges, liver, and eggs.

Vitamin B1     clickhere_orange25

Beriberi 腳氣病     clickhere_green25

腳氣病     clickhere_orange25

Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome 韋尼克 – 科爾薩科夫綜合徵     clickhere_blue25

高沙可夫症候群     clickhere_red25


Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 is one of 8 B vitamins.  All B vitamins help human body converting food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is “burned” to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help human body metabolize fats and protein.
– Chemical name (vitaminer) – riboflavin
– Water soluble
– Deficiency may cause ariboflavinosis
– Sources include: asparagus, bananas, chard, cottage cheese, eggs, fish,
green beans, meat, milk, okra, persimmons, and yogurt

Vitamin B2     clickhere_orange25

核黄素     clickhere_red25

Ariboflavinosis     clickhere_green25


Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 烟酸 (niacin) is one of 8 B vitamins, having 2 other forms, niacinamide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate, which have different effects from niacin.  Niacin helps human body making various sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands and other parts of the body.  Niacin helps improving circulation.
– Chemical names (vitaminer) – niacin, niacinamide
– Water soluble
– Deficiency may cause pellagra 糙皮病
– Sources include: asparagus, avocados, beef, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, carrots, chicken, dates, eggs, fish (tuna, salmon), heart, kidney, leafy vegetables, legumes, liver, milk, mushrooms, nuts, sweet potatoes, tomatoes and whole grains.

Vitamin B3    clickhere_red25

菸鹼酸   clickhere_orange25

Pellagra 糙皮病    clickhere_green25


Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is naturally present in many foods.  Human body needs vitamin B6 for more than 100 enzyme reactions involved in metabolism.  Vitamin B6 is also involved in brain development during pregnancy and infancy as well as immune function.
– Chemical name – Pyridoxine
– Water soluble
– Deficiency may cause anemia, itchy rashes, scaly skin on the lips, cracks at the corners of mouth, swollen tongue, depression, confusion, and a weak immune system.  Infants without sufficient vitamin B6 can become irritable or develop extremely sensitive hearing or seizures.
– Source include: poultry, fish, organ meats, potatoes, starchy vegetables and fruit (other than citrus).

Vitamin B6     clickhere_orange25
维生素 B6     clickhere_green25


Vitamin B9
Also called: Folacin, Folate, Pteroylglutamic acid
It helps the body to make healthy new cells.  All of us needs vitamin B9 (Folic Acid ).  For women getting enough vitamin B9 (Folic Acid ) before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth defects of her baby’s brain or spine.
– Chemical names Folic Acid
– Water soluble
– Deficiency may cause anemia, fatigue, grey hair, mouth sores, tongue swelling,  growth problems
– Sources include: leafy green vegetables, fruits, dried beans, peas, nuts, enriched breads, cereals and other grain products

Vitamin B9     clickhere_red25

葉酸     clickhere_orange25


Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is a nutrient helping to keep human body’s nerve and blood cells healthy as well as tp make DNA, the genetic material in all cells.  Furthermor vitamin B12 helps preventing a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia 巨幼細胞性貧血 that makes people tired and weak.
– Chemical name – cobalamin
– Water soluble
– Deficiency may cause tiredness, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, and megaloblastic anemia. numbness and tingling 麻木和刺痛 in the hands and feet, problems with balance, depression, confusion, dementia 癡呆, poor memory, and soreness of the mouth or tongue.  Vitamin B12 deficiency can damage the nervous system even in people who don’t have anemia.
– Source include: beef liver, clams, fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and some dairy products which contain vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12     clickhere_red25
维生素 B12     clickhere_orange25

Megaloblastic anemia 巨幼細胞性貧血     clickhere_green25


Vitamin C

Vitamin C is an antioxidant.  It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue.  It promotes healing and helps the body to absorb iron
– Chemical names (vitaminer) – ascorbic acid
– Water soluble
– Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia 巨幼細胞性貧血
– Sources include: fruit and vegetables.  The Kakadu plum and the camu fruit have the highest vitamin C contents of all foods.  Liver also has vitamin C.

Vitamin C     clickhere_red25
维生素 C     clickhere_orange25

Megaloblastic anemia 巨幼細胞性貧血     clickhere_green25


Vitamin D

Vitamin D helps human body to absorb calcium
– Chemical names (vitaminer) – ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol
– Fat soluble
– Deficiency may cause rickets 疳, osteomalacia 骨軟化症
– Sources: produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet B light from the sun or artificial sources.  Also found in fatty fish, eggs, beef liver, and mushrooms.

Vitamin D     clickhere_orange25
维生素 D     clickhere_green25

Rickets 佝僂病    clickhere_blue25
佝僂病     clickhere_red25

Osteomalacia 軟骨病    clickhere_orange25
軟骨病     clickhere_green25


Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant.  It plays a role in human immune system and metabolic processes.
– Chemical names (vitaminer) – tocopherols, tocotrienols
– Fat soluble
– Deficiency is uncommon.  May cause mild hemolytic anemia 輕度溶血性貧血 in newborns
– Sources include: kiwi fruit, almonds, avocado, eggs, milk, nuts, leafy green vegetables, unheated vegetable oils, wheat germ, and wholegrains.

Vitamin E    clickhere_blue25
维生素 E     clickhere_orange25

Hemolytic anemia 溶血性貧血


Vitamin E succinate

Vitamin E succinate is a form of vitamin E containing a chemical alpha-tocopheryl known to fight cancer cells.  It has antioxidant effects able to help protecting us from harmful toxins in our environment as well as removing free radicals or molecular instabilities from our body.
–  Benefits: Prevention of Heart Disease and Cancer
– Source for vitamin E succinate include spinach, almonds, mustard greens, turnip greens, margarine, dandelion greens, soybean oil, sunflower oil and seeds, wheat-germ oil and wheat germ.

Vitamin E Succinate Benefits     clickhere_orange25


Vitamin K

Vitamin K helps making proteins for healthy bones and tissues.  It also makes proteins for blood clotting.
– Chemical names (vitaminer) – phylloquinone, menaquinones
– Fat soluble
– Deficiency may cause bleeding diathesis 出血素質
– Sources: leafy green vegetables, avocado, kiwi fruit. Parsley contain a lot of

Vitamin K     clickhere_orange25
维生素K     clickhere_red25

What Is Bleeding Diathesis?     clickhere_green25



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