Metabolic syndrome 代謝綜合症 is the name for a group of risk factors that raises the risk of heart disease and other health problems, such as stroke and diabetes.
Metabolic Risk Factors
The five conditions listed below are metabolic risk factors. You can have any one of these risk factors by itself, but they tend to occur together. You must have at least three metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.
1. High triglyceride level – 150 mg/dl or above. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood.
2. Large waistline (abdominal obesity) – waist circumference of 102 cm (40 in) or more in men and 88 cm (35 inches) or more in women. For Asian Americans, the cutoff values are ≥90 cm (35 in) in men or ≥80 cm (32 in) in women. Excess fat in the stomach area is a greater risk factor for heart disease than excess fat in other parts of the body, such as on the hips.
3. Low HDL cholesterol level which raises the risk of heart disease. 40mg/dl or lower in men and 50mg/dl or lower in women.
4. High fasting blood sugar – 100 mg/dl or above. Mildly high blood sugar may be an early sign of diabetes.
5. High blood pressure – 130/85 or more. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as the heart pumping blood. If this pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage the heart as well as leading to plaque accumulation on the wall of arteries.
Other Names for Metabolic Syndrome
- Dysmetabolic syndrome
- Hypertriglyceridemic waist
- Insulin resistance syndrome
- Obesity syndrome
- Syndrome X
Causes and Risk Factors
Genetics and the environment both play important roles in developing metabolic syndrome.
Genetic factors influence each individual component of the syndrome, and the syndrome itself. A family history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and early heart disease greatly increases the chance that an individual will develop the metabolic syndrome.
Environmental issues, including low activity level, sedentary lifestyle, and progressive weight gain, contribute significantly to the risk in developing metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome is present in about 5% of people with normal body weight, 22% of those who are overweight and 60% of those considered obese. Adults who continue to gain five or more pounds per year raise their risk of developing metabolic syndrome by up to 45%.
While obesity itself is likely the greatest risk factor, others factors of concern include:
- Eating an excessively high carbohydrate diet
- Lack of activity (even without weight change)
- Women who are post-menopausal 絕經後
Symptoms of metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a condition that has no symptoms. If a person having risk factors for metabolic syndrome (particularly a large waist circumference), consult doctor to evaluate your risk.