Genetic modification 基因改造

 

Genetic Engineering (GE) is the process to alter the DNA in an organism’s genome

What is DNA? (from U.S. National Libary of Medicine)
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA)……
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix……
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Mitochondrion
a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms
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基因工程 – 是改變 生物體基因組 DNA 的過程

什麼是 DNA? (取材自 美國國家醫學圖書館)
DNA脫氧核糖核酸 是人類和幾乎所有其他生物的遺傳物質. 幾乎人體內每個細胞都有相同的 DNA. 大多數 DNA 位於 細胞核 (稱為 核DNA), 但在 線粒體 中也可以發現少量的 DNA.
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脱氧核糖核酸
脫氧核醣核酸(英語縮寫:DNA)又稱脫氧核醣核酸,是一種生物大分子,可組成遺傳指令,引導生物發育與生命機能運作。主要功能是資訊儲存,可比喻為「藍圖」或「配方」。其中包含的指令,是建構細胞內其他的化合物,如蛋白質與核醣核酸所需。帶有蛋白質編碼的DNA片段稱為基因。其他的DNA序列,有些直接以本身構造發揮作用,有些則參與調控遺傳訊息的表現。……
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線粒體
是一種存在於大多數真核細胞中的由兩層膜包被的細胞器
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Genetic Engineering Risks and Impacts
Any scientific technology offering benefits will usually come with risks as well.

Health Risks of Genetic Engineering
It is an exaggeration that foods manufactured from GE crops are inherently unsafe. There is no evidence nor scientific proof that refined products made from GE crops, such as oils, starch and sugar, are different than those made from conventionally bred crops.

Equally it is also an exaggeration stressing no health risks associated with GE. For one thing, not enough is known: research on the effects of specific genes has been limited and tightly controlled by the industry.

 

基因工程風險及其影響:
任何 科學技術 提供的好處, 通常也會帶來風險.

基因工程的健康風險
用 基因工程 改做的農作物,製造的食品本身就是不安全,這是誇張. 沒有任何證據,也沒有科學根據證明,用 基因工程改做農作物製成的產品,如油,澱粉和糖,與 用傳統繁殖的農作物製成的產品是有不同.

而強調 基因工程 與 健康風險 是不相關, 同樣是誇大其詞.

 

What is genetic engineering

  • Genetic engineering, sometimes called genetic modification, is the process of altering the DNA in an organism’s genome.
  • This may mean changing one base pair (A-T or C-G), deleting a whole region of DNA, or introducing an additional copy of a gene.
  • It may also mean extracting DNA from another organism’s genome and combining it with the DNA of that individual.
  • Genetic engineering is used by scientists to enhance or modify the characteristics of an individual organism.
  • Genetic engineering can be applied to any organism, from a virus? to a sheep.

For example, genetic engineering can be used to produce plants that have a higher nutritional value or can tolerate exposure to herbicides.
…….
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什麼是基因工程

  • 基因工程,有時稱為 基因改造,是改變 生物體基因組 DNA 的過程.
  • 這可能為改變一對 鹼基(A-T 或 C-G), 刪除整個 DNA 區域,或者引入一個額外的複制基因.
  • 它也可能為從另一個生物的基因組中提取 DNA,並將其與該個體的 DNA 結合. 科學家利用 基因工程 來增強 或 修改 個別有機體的特性.
  • 基因工程 可應用於任何 有機體,從病毒 至一隻羊.

例如,基因工程 可用於生產具有較高營養價值的 植物 或 可以另 植物 忍受接觸除草劑
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In the absence of scientific proof, that transgenic crops are 100% safe to be consumed by human beings, it would be advisable turning away from them. Conventionally bred crops have been consumed by human beings for more than thousand years without health risks.

在沒有科學證據, 證明 基因改造農作物供人類食用, 是 100% 安全的情況下,建議 避免食用 基因改造農作物. 傳統繁殖的農作物, 已被人類食用超過一千多年,是沒有健康風險.

 

Are GMOs Good or Bad? Genetic Engineering & Our Food
轉基因生物 是好還是壞? 基因工程 和 我們的食物
(GMO – Genetic Modified Organisms)
(GMO – 轉基因生物)

 

Genetic Engineering
基因工程

 

Genetic Engineering Animation
基因工程 動畫

 

 

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