Diabetes usually refers to diabetes mellitus, a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar.
- Excessive thirst and appetite
- Increased urination (sometimes as often as every hour)
- Unusual weight loss or gain
- Nausea, perhaps vomiting
- Blurred vision
- In women, frequent vaginal infections
- In men and women, yeast infections
- Dry mouth
- Slow-healing sores or cuts
- Itching skin, especially in the groin or vaginal area
The A1C Test and Diabetes
The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test 糖化血紅蛋白測試. The A1C test is the primary test used for diabetes management and diabetes research.
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes) is a chronic disease. The pancreas produces little or no insulin which is a hormone for allowing sugar (glucose) to enter cells for producing energy.
Various factors may contribute to type 1 diabetes, including genetics and exposure to certain viruses. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it also can begin in adults. There is no cure for Type 1 diabetes but it can be managed with proper treatment.
Type 2 diabetes (insulin resistance)
The bodies of people with type 2 diabetes make insulin. But either their pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin well enough. When there isn’t enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose (sugar) can’t get into the body’s cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the body’s cells are not able to function properly. Other problems associated with the buildup of glucose in the blood include:
– Damage to the body
– Diabetic coma (hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma).
Type 2 Diabetes
Animation about diabetes and the body