Diabetes Urine Tests
Urine tests for diabetes
To evaluate severe hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by looking for ketones in the urine. Ketones are a metabolic product produced when fat is metabolized. Ketones increase when there is insufficient insulin to use glucose for energy. Testing for ketones is most common for type 1 diabetes.
Urine tests are also done to look for the presence of protein in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage.
Urine glucose measurements are less reliable than blood glucose measurements and are not used to diagnose diabetes or evaluate treatment for diabetes. They may be used for screening purposes.
Both people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes typically have microalbumin testing.
Albumin Urine Test 白蛋白尿液檢查
An albumin test checks urine for the presence of a protein called albumin. Albumin is normally found in the blood and filtered by the kidneys. When the kidneys are working properly, albumin is not present in the urine. But when the kidneys are damaged, small amounts of albumin leak into the urine. This is called albuminuria 白蛋白尿.
Albuminuria is most often caused by kidney damage from diabetes. But many other conditions can lead to kidney damage, such as high blood pressure, heart failure, cirrhosis, or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE 系統性紅斑狼瘡). If early kidney damage is not treated, larger amounts of albumin and protein may leak into the urine. When the kidneys spill protein, it can mean serious kidney damage is present. This can lead to chronic kidney disease.
Microalbuminuria and Microalbuminuria test positive
Microalbuminuria 微量蛋白尿 refers to the urinary excretion of small amounts of albumin, below the detection level of routine dipstick analysis. The condition is an early indicator of altered glomerular permeability in diabetes.
Microalbuminuria test positive refers to the urinary excretion of small amounts of albumin, below the detection level of routine dipstick analysis. The condition is an early indicator of altered glomerular permeability in diabetes.
The excretion of 30–300 g albumin/day. An increase in albumin excretion predicts haemodynamic and morphologic changes of diabetic nephropathy. It is an early indicator of renal failure; the risk of microalbuminuria in diabetics increases when HbA1c value rises > 10%. Microalbuminuria is not invariably associated with renal failure and, in some patients, may regress.
If the microalbuminuria test is positive, it indicates the blood vessels to kidneys are damaged. It also reflects more widespread blood vessel disease that can increase the risk of heart problems.
An albumin urine test can be done on a sample of urine collected randomly (usually after the first time urinatiom in the morning), a sample collected over a 24-hour period, or a sample collected over a specific period of time, such as 4 hours or overnight.
Microalbumin Urine Test Kit